|A surgical procedure in which damaged parts of the knee joint are replaced with artificial parts.
The surgery is done by separating the muscles and ligaments around the knee to expose the inside of the joint. The ends of the thigh bone (femur) and the shin bone (tibia) are removed as is often the underside of the kneecap (patella). The artificial parts are then cemented into place.
The new knee typically has a metal shell on the end of the femur, a metal and plastic trough on the tibia, and sometimes a plastic button in the kneecap.
Total knee replacement may be done on people, usually over 55, whose knees have been damaged by arthritis, trauma, or other destructive diseases of the joint resulting in severe limiting knee pain and significant stiffness, instability (constant giving way) and deformity (lock-knees or bowlegs) of the knee. ( Knee Specialist Doctor in Mumbai. )
Total Hip Replacement
|A total hip replacement is a surgical procedure to repair the hip-joint by partly (Hemi arthroplasty) or fully (Bipolar-hemi arthroplasty) replacing the original hip joint with prosthetic substitutes. Care needs to be taken with this operation because of the invasive nature of this procedure , it is cautiously deliberated if surgery is advised, to take account of age, medical problems, hip disease, activity status and possible fracture characteristics.
The hip is a ‘ball and socket’ joint. This means that the caput of the femur fits in the acetabulum of the pelvis. The ‘ball’ is the femoral head which fits into the socket is the acetabulum of the pelvis. This ball and socket design is what allows the poly-axial movement seen at the hip. The hip is made up of the pelvis and the femur. The pelvis is formed by 3 bones; the ischium, ilium and pubis. The femur is the longest and strongest bone in the human body. The acetabulum is cup-shaped providing the articular surface for the head of femur to move within. The head of the femur is gripped by the acetabulum beyond its maximum diameter. The caput of the femur and the inside of the acetabulum are covered with a layer of hyaline cartilage.
|In shoulder replacement surgery, doctors replace the ends of the damaged upper arm bone (humerus) and usually the shoulder bone (scapula) or cap them with artificial surfaces lined with plastic or metal and plastic. Shoulder joint components may be held in place with cement. Or they may be made with material that allows new bone to grow into the joint component over time to hold it in place without cement.
The top end of your upper arm bone is shaped like a ball. Muscles and ligaments hold this ball against a cup-shaped part of the shoulder bone. Surgeons usually replace the top of the upper arm bone with a long metal piece, inserted into your upper arm bone, that has a rounded head. If the cup-shaped surface of your shoulder bone that cradles your upper arm bone is also damaged, doctors smooth it and then cap it with a plastic or metal and plastic piece.
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