Recruitment from high caste Hindus meant that the average sepoy had a level of education and pride about their standing in the local community. Causes of the Revolt 1857 However, the recent research has proved that the cartridge was neither the only cause nor even the most important. 2.1 Superior British Army; 2.2 Limited Supplies and Lack of Modern Communication; 3 Political Reasons for the Failure of 1857 Revolt. The reign of his successor witnessed a big conflagration-the Great Revolt of 1857. An ‘Indian’ could be a common soldier or a non-commissioned officer or a junior commissioned officer but remained junior or subservient to the junior most British officer who may have been a cook or son of a cook in Britain! The ruling house led by the Nawab had little to do with patriotism or any other lofty moral ideals. But the introduction of the Greased Cartridges in 1857 was the final and decisive blow. These include ‘Nadir Shah’ and ‘Ahmad Shah Abdali’. Confiscation of these estates also alienated a large number of landowners in Oudh. Militarily it rendered Oudh incapable of concluding an effective alliance with the Mahrattas or another power since now Oudh was surrounded on all three sides by EEIC’s territory whereas previously the EEIC territories were only on its eastern borders. Political cause: Nana sahib was refused pension as he was the adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao II. The second was going across the Indus westwards which again in their opinion polluted the purity of their caste. We will examine the salient aspects which brought this change of perception in the Bengal Sepoy :- (1) The prime motivation of the Bengal Army soldiers in joining the army was economic. Page-177-1857 -Surendar Nath Sen-Delhi-1958. Page-97- Red Year-The Indian Rebellion of 1857- London-1963. However as we have seen that Dalhousie did not want to abolish the King’s title in Oudh but was ordered to do so by the Board of Directors of EEIC. Notes and References, 32. 46. 63. Subsequently geographical and logistical factors forced him to also act as a part settler and thus he made present ‘Punjab’ and ‘Frontier’ a province of his empire. The other aspect is that without the Bengal Army or for that matter the Madras or the Bombay armies there would have been no EEIC’s conquest of India. This was so not because they disliked Central Asia but because it was not economically viable or safe to go and live there. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. Saadat Ali Khan intrigued with the EEIC in late 1797 and a bargain was struck. At its core, it was a Sepoy mutiny – with parts of North India, especially the civilian population of Avadh, taking part in hostilities. Show More. Revolt of 1857: Causes, Leaders Nature of the revolt • Revolt of 1857 began as a revolt of the sepoys but eventually secured the participation of the masses. The rebellion began on 10 May 1857 in the form of a mutiny of sepoys of the Company's army in the garrison town of Meerut, 40 mi (64 km) northeast of Delhi (now Old Delhi). It became the 2nd Bengal Light Cavalry only in 1796 85. Today we find historians very confidently asserting that there was no conspiracy in 1857 and it was a spontaneous act. It became clearer in 1797 during the Wazir Ali affair and by 1801 it was crystal clear. Wazir Ali resisted this attempt and in this connection visited the British Resident a certain Mr. Cherry on 14th January 1799. Page-509-Concise Oxford History of India-Op Cit. It would be unfair to brand all EEIC officials as Christian fanatics. Here comes the contradiction, men of vision like Sir Syed even in 1840s knew that the English East India Company was there in India to stay, but the man with average perception and these constitute the vast majority in all historical situations, always naively thought that Oudh still was a great power and the EEIC will not swallow what remained of Oudh after 1801. 62A. Page-168 & 169-A Clash of Cultures-Op Cit. Page-140 & 428-J.W Fortescue-Op Cit. Here a sharp distinction has to be drawn. 36. In 1855 Mr. Edward a Christian missionary of Calcutta published a leaflet distributed all over India in which he urged all Indians to convert to Christianity. This ‘Discrimination’ was a major underlying cause of the rebellion of 1857. Meanwhile from early 1850s trials had been carried out at Enfield in England on a new rifle with three grooves. 91. Thus, from the above discussion, we can say that the main causes of the Revolt of 1857 were due to various policies introduced by the British, the rapid spread of English education, imposing of heavy duties. 72. The British claimed that Wazeer Ali’s father Asafa ud Daulah was impotent and could not father a child and that either Wazeer was adopted or the illegitimate child of Asif as a result of liaision of Asif’s wife with a servant.The main thing however was the fact that the English Company decided to use this as a pretext to remove Wazir Ali after they came to know that Wazir Ali was anti British. 93. Mangal Pandey:Mangal Pandey joined the sepoy force of the British East India Company in the year 1849 at the age of 22. He also wanted to reduce the influence of the EEIC’s Resident at Lucknow who were performing the same role as Ambassadors of some so-called super powers perform in today’s third world countries. It is in this regard that the British argument that 1857 was just a soldier’s mutiny is baseless. In the end, we may presume that the revolt of 1857 was the result of a culmination of popular dissatisfaction that had been simmering for a long time against the policies of the British in India – expansion, exploitation and economic drain and humiliation of the Indian spirit by advocating the white- man’s civilizing mission – factors of multiple dimension of direct and indirect, long run and short run … The 1857 revolt is considered as the first serious attempt by Indians to end the British rule in India.It started as a movement in the upper Gangetic plain and central India, but continued long 90 years till India got her freedom. This proposal was defeated due to opposition on part of Sir Charles Wood who stated that ‘No two Indians could be found to represent adequately the diversity of Hindu and Muslim society’.35a There was an element of truth in Charles Wood’s argument but it was just a minute fraction of the truth against the whole argument in favour of having Indian members. Page-170-Ibid. 40. Even if they wanted to, they could not follow a policy which was fair and just for the Indian natives. The Pakistani public was at a loss once they learnt from the terms of the peace agreement of Tashkent that the impression that Pakistan had won the war of 1965 was false. Sir Syed writing in the post-1857 era declared ‘Exclusion’ as the principle cause of the rebellion35b. 1. ADVERTISEMENTS: Causes of the Revolt: a. The EEIC conquest of Punjab in 1849 created another unique situation. This necessitated economic exploitation and discriminatory taxation and commercial regulation. They were given a preferential treatment in their private dealings with Oudh state officials once they visited their houses and villages on long leave. It was mainly fought against the biggest East India Company which acted as … 47. The annual subsidy which Oudh had to pay was increased to 76 lakh rupees. The Punjab infantry played a major role in the storming of Delhi. 87. However long negotiations followed in which the viceroy’s brother agreed to cession of only half the territory to the EEIC’s domains.This annexation rendered Oudh politically geographically and militarily little more than a petty vassal state of the East India Company. Dalhousie thus wrote about the king of Oudh ‘The king won’t offend or quarrel with us, and will take any amount of kicking without being rebellious!’64. Economic cause: The Great Revolt of 1857 was also an outburst of grievances due to the economic exploitation of the company. There were political, economic, social, religious and military causes of the revolt. The events of 1857 were unique both in terms of historical precedence and in terms of the socio-political sphere as far as India was concerned. The EEIC was above all a commercial organization and thoughtless, unplanned impulsive expansion figured nowhere in the principles which guided its foreign policy in India. Private Letters 18th September 1848 and dated 12th May 1855-Private Letters of Lord Dalhousie J.G.A Baird- Blackwood-London-1910. The regiment was disbanded and those who led the opposition were hanged. But this is not the appropriate place to go into any further details. The price of this succession was forced loans to the EEIC by Oudh on extremely low interest rates. 44. 84. The probable reason why the viceroy’s brother agreed to only half the territory appears to have been partly a fear that complete annexation may be perceived as politically inexpedient being a violation of 1798 treaty between Sir John Shore and Oudh. Hindus killed Hindus for Muslim Kings and Muslims killed Muslims for Hindu Kings. Another reason was the successive decline in the quality of officers of the Bengal Army by the process of secondment to civil duties after the annexation of Punjab. A History of the British Cavalry-1816-1919- Volume Two –The Marquess of Anglesey-London-1975.As a matter of comparison it may be noted that the East India Company in all its three armies had a total of 232,224 Natives out of which 188,286 were in infantry,30,923 were in Cavalry,while 4176 were in Artillery.Bengal Army Cavalry strength was 35,846 and Infantry strength was 138,666 (Pages-621 to 626-Report of the Royal Commission on the Organisation of the Indian Army as reproduced by Sir John William Kaye in his History of the Sepoy War in India-1857- 1858-Volume III-London-1880. at 4% interest61. In this aspect, the East India Company was a sophisticated version of Mahmud Ghaznavi or Nadir Shah or Sivaji or Ahmad Shah Abdali. There were cases where estates were rightfully held but the proofs of ownership were missing. Page-109-Map illustrating area annexed in 1775- North India between Empires-Oudh,the Mughals and the British-1720-1801-Richard.B.Barnett –Manohar Publications-New Delhi-1987 and Page-233-Cambridge History of India-British India-1497-1858-Op Cit. 36. The peasantry were never really to recover from the disabilities imposed by the new and a highly unpopular revenue settlement. 85. From the strict legal point it can be criticized as unjust. The Mughals also could not maintain direct contact with their home country since they themselves had been expelled from their home country by the Uzbeks. Their rule in India had begun with the Battle of Plassey in 1757. Sir John Fortescue’s opinion on this episode is worth quoting, ‘The sepoys thus saw the chief, who had observed equity on their behalf, rewarded by public disgrace’.91. Initially his concentration was on simply acquiring the material wealth which during that age was done by ‘Plunder’. Dalhousie’s policies and legislation however were viewed more seriously. In order to remove this anomaly Lord Canning in 1856 changed the rules of service in 1856 which made it compulsory for all regiments of Bengal Army to serve overseas in any part of the world. After nearly tow hundred years of british east India company rule, an overwhelming revolt spread all over India. The English East India Company’s presence was based on trade between India and Britain and pure business or economic activity confined to India only was not their sole objective. 35. Ibid. 73. Their first founder King Babar could not hold his ancestral state ‘Ferghana’ in Central Asia. Also, the import of British Machine to India, the exclusion of Indian sepoys at higher ranks in … REVOLT OF 1857 Causes of the revolt of 1857 These are broadly categorized into four parts: Political causes: LORD DALHOUSIE: A. Doctrine of lapse. Not a shilling was spent from the British treasury on the defense of the India. Causes Of The Revolt Of 1857. The Indian historian, Vir Savarkar was the first one to mention the revolt of 1857 as the first war of Indian Independence. Saadat Ali travels to Kanpur and from there is escorted to Lucknow by EEIC’s troops and is proclaimed Nawab on 21 January, 1798. Page-177-1857 -Surendar Nath Sen-Delhi-1958. Page-509-Concise Oxford History of India-Op Cit. The first loan of 1.85 million pounds was taken in 1814. This was believed to be the immediate aspect of the rebellion of 1857. In fact, the revolt of 1857 was the outburst of people´s feelings against, social, economic and political exploitation and hence participants from almost every field i.e. In 1857, the Rebels demonstrated bitterness towards foreign rule, even though this foreign rule would later try to improve India’s medical services. There was however one subtle contradiction in all this. 5. 1. Pages-684 & 685- A Dictionary of Modern Indian History-Parshotam Mehra-Oxford University Press-New Delhi-1985. 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